Biographical Sketch of G. J. Long
Reprinted from the March 2005 edition of the Mössbauer Spectroscopy Newsletter, published as part of Volume 28, Issue 3 of the Mössbauer Effect Reference and Data Journal

Gary J. Long was born on 3 December 1941 in Binghamton, New York, and graduated from Binghamton North Senior High School in 1960. Upon graduation he received the Bausch & Lomb Science Award. He graduated with a B.S. in Chemistry from Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie-Mellon University, in 1964. His undergraduate research thesis dealt with the synthesis of new indole-based organic compounds and was under the supervision of Prof. Philip Southwick. In 1964, he began graduate work in inorganic chemistry at Syracuse University, where he was a National Institutes of Health Doctoral Research Fellow.

Gary J. Long at one year.
Gary and two of his brothers (from left, Joseph, James, and Gary) hiking in the Adirondack Mountains (about 1952).
Gary's mother, Margaret Goodnow Long, and three of her boys.

In 1968, he received his Ph.D. in Inorganic Chemistry for a doctoral dissertation entitled “A Study of the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Some First Row Transition Metal Complexes,” under the supervision of Prof. W. A. Baker, Jr.

In 1968, Dr. Long was appointed an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the University of Missouri-Rolla and was promoted to Associate Professor in 1974 and to Professor in 1982. From 1972 to 1974, he served as a research associate and consultant in the Chemistry Division of Argonne National Laboratory. During the 1974-1975 academic year, he was on sabbatical as a Visiting Research Associate at the Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University. Subsequently, he conducted research and served as a part-time consultant to the Nuclear Physics Division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, England. During the summer of 1983, Dr. Long served as a NATO Visiting Professor of Chemistry at the Instituto di Chimica e Technologia dei Radioelementi del CNR, University of Padova, Padova, Italy. He subsequently served as a Visiting Professor of Chemistry and taught special topics in advanced inorganic chemistry short courses at the Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica ed Analitica, University of Padova. During the 1983-1984 academic year, Dr. Long was a Science and Engineering Research Council Research Fellow in the Department of Physics, at the University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England. During this time, he conducted extensive Mössbauer spectroscopy research on a variety of solid-state materials. During the 1993-1994 academic year, Dr. Long was a J. William Fulbright Research Fellow at the Institut de Physique de l’Université de Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Gary and his brothers, taken at Sodus, New York, in 1968. From left, David C. Long, now an electrical engineer at IBM, Joseph W. Long, now a chemist with IBM, James C. Long, now retired from IBM, and a larger former version of Gary.
In front is Gary's mother, Margaret Goodnow Long, and from the left Gary and his brothers James, Joseph, and David. The photo was taken in October 1987 in Binghamton.

In 2002 Dr. Long was appointed the “Chaire Francqui Interuniversitaire au titre étranger,” or the International Francqui Chair, in Belgium for the 2002-2003 academic year. This chair is financed by the “Fondation Francqui,” a Belgian foundation which was created in 1932 through cooperation between Emile Francqui and Herbert Hoover, then President of the U.S. The nomination for the Francqui Chair was based on Dr. Long’s internationally recognized achievements in Mössbauer spectroscopy and was supported by six Belgian universities, the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Catholique de Louvain, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Université de Liège, Katholiek Universiteit Leuven, and Universiteit Gent. Although the University of Liège served as the host university, Dr. Long presented lectures on his scientific work at all six universities. The University of Liège also organized an international symposium on materials science in honor of Dr. Long near the end of his professorship in June 2003.

Dr. Long is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a member of the American Chemical Society, the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Geophysical Union, Phi Lambda, Upsilon, and the Society of the Sigma Xi. He served for four years as program chairman for the Division of Inorganic Chemistry of the American Chemical Society and he served for six years on the American Chemical Society Committee on Publications. He served for nine years on the Council of the American Chemical Society representing the South Central Missouri local section of the society.

He is married to Fernande Grandjean, who is a Professor of Physics at the University of Liège, and has one son, Jeffrey R. Long, who is currently an Associate Professor of Chemistry at the University of California-Berkeley.

"A formal group meeting!" The photograph shows, from the left, Dr. Raphael P. Hermann, currently at the University of Tennessee, Prof. Gary J. Long, University of Missouri-Rolla, Prof. Fernande Grandjean, University of Liege, Prof. K. H. Jürgen Buschow, University of Amsterdam, and Dr. Dmitri Hautot, currently at University College London. The picture was taken at the University of Liege on 8 March 2004 just before Prof. Buschow received a "Doctorat Honoris Causa" from the University of Liege.
In the University of Missouri-Rolla Mössbauer Effect Laboratory in 2004. From left, Gary J. Long, Ahmed M. Shahin, who received his Ph.D. from UMR in 2004, and Gary's wife, Fernande Grandjean, a Professor of Physics at the University of Liege in Belgium and an Adjunct Professor of Chemistry at the University of Missouri-Rolla.

As an educator, in addition to teaching undergraduate and graduate inorganic chemistry courses, Dr. Long, in conjunction with Profs. Grandjean and Buschow, organized NATO Advanced Study Institutes on The Time Domain in Surface and Structural Dynamics in 1988, Supermagnets, Hard Magnetic Materials in 1990, High Density Digital Recording in 1992, and Interstitial Intermetallic Alloys in 1994. He has also edited or co-edited eleven books and chapters, mostly dealing with inorganic chemistry and the Mössbauer effect.

Dr. Long has made many research contributions in inorganic chemistry, solid-state physics and chemistry, materials science, mineralogy, and metallurgy. This work has been reported in almost 300 research papers in the chemistry, physics, and mineralogy literature.

Among the most important of his research contributions was the discovery [1,2], in 1978, that Fe2(SO4)3 is an L-type ferrimagnet. This was the first compound shown to exhibit this type of ferrimagnetic interaction, an interaction that had been predicted by Néel in 1947. In addition, his research group discovered [3] the first Goldanskii-Karyagin asymmetry in an organometallic iron compound in the anisotropic lattice vibrations in Fe3(CO)12, vibrations which lead to the Goldanskii-Karyagin asymmetry in the room temperature Mössbauer spectrum of Fe3(CO)12. This was only the second discovery of such an asymmetry in any iron compound. In related work he has carried out [4,5] extensive Fenske-Hall molecular orbital calculations on various organoiron complexes in order to better understand their Mössbauer spectral hyperfine parameters.

An important practical accomplishment of his research group was the first complete description and understanding [6-12] of the magnetic hyperfine interaction in compounds such as Nd2Fe14B, Nd2Fe17, NdFe11Ti, and many of their related hydrides and nitrides. These compounds provide the basis for the new hard permanent magnet industry. These studies made complementary use of both neutron diffraction and the Mössbauer effect to best understand the magnetic properties of these new materials. He has recently extended his research activities to examine the EXAFS/XANES spectra of new permanent magnet materials.

More recently Dr. Long has begun to study [13-15] thermoelectric materials and has reported on the Einstein oscillations associated with the rattling atoms found in many filled antimony skutterudites and clathrate compounds – new potential thermoelectric materials. In addition to Mössbauer spectral work on these thermoelectric materials he has undertaken further complementary studies [16] with both inelastic neutron scattering and nuclear inelastic scattering with the iron-57 and europium-151 nuclides.

Throughout his career Dr. Long has been involved in the study [17-22] of the electronic spin-state crossover or the electronic spin-state transition associated with the iron(II) and iron(III) ions in various coordination complexes at low-temperature or at high-pressure. Much of this work has been centered on the complexes formed with various pyrazolylborate and pyrazolylmethane ligands and most recently he has reported [19, 20] on the importance of long-range intermolecular interactions in such complexes in controlling the nature of the electronic spin-state changes.

Prof. Gary J. Long, University of Missouri-Rolla, enjoys a best bitter at “The Swan” on Bayswater Street in London during a visit to the Royal Institution in 2001 to work on a paper reporting the Mössbauer spectral properties of some molecular magnets.
  1. G. J. Long, G. Longworth, P. Battle, A. K. Cheetham, R. V. Thundathil, and D. Beveridge, “A Study of Anhydrous Iron(III) Sulfate by Magnetic Susceptibility, Mössbauer, and Neutron Diffraction Techniques,” Inorg. Chem. 18, 624 (1979).
  2. P. D. Battle, A. K. Cheetham, G. J. Long, and G. Longworth, “Study of the Magnetic Properties of Iron(III) Molybdate, by Susceptibility, Mössbauer, and Neutron Diffraction Techniques,” Inorg. Chem. 21, 4223 (1982).
  3. F. Grandjean, G. J. Long, C. G. Benson, and U. Russo, “Mössbauer Effect Study of Fe3(CO)12,” Inorg. Chem. 27, 1524 (1988).
  4. M. L. Buhl, G. J. Long, and J. F. O’Brien, “Mössbauer-Effect and Fenske-Hall Molecular Orbital Study of the Electronic Structure of Several Trinuclear Iron Carbonyl Clusters,” Organometallics 12, 283 (1993).
  5. M. L. Buhl, G. J. Long, and J. F. O’Brien, “A Mössbauer Effect and Fenske-Hall Molecular Orbital Study of the Bonding in Several Organoiron Butterfly Clusters,” Organometallics, 12 1902 (1993).
  6. G. J. Long, O. A. Pringle, F. Grandjean, and K. H. J. Buschow, “A Mössbauer Effect Study of the Microscopic Magnetic Properties of Nd2Fe17 and Nd2Fe17N2.6,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 4845 (1992).
  7. G. J. Long, O. A. Pringle, F. Grandjean, W. B. Yelon, and K. H. J. Buschow, “A Neutron Diffraction and Mössbauer Effect Study of the Magnetic Properties of Pr2Fe17 and Pr2Fe17N2.6,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 504 (1993).
  8. G. J. Long, G. K. Marasinghe, S. Mishra, O. A. Pringle, Z. Hu, W. B. Yelon, D. P. Middleton, K. H. J. Buschow, and F. Grandjean, “A Magnetic, Neutron Diffraction, and Mössbauer Spectral Study of the Nd2Fe17-xAlx Solid Solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 5383 (1994).
  9. S. R. Mishra, G. J. Long, O. A. Pringle, D. P. Middleton, Z. Hu, W. B. Yelon, F. Grandjean, and K. H. J. Buschow, “A Magnetic, Neutron Diffraction, and Mössbauer Spectral Study of the Ce2Fe17-xAlx Solid Solutions,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 3145 (1996).
  10. D. Hautot, G. J. Long, F. Grandjean, and O. Isnard, “A Mössbauer Spectral Study of the Magnetic Properties of Ce2Fe17Hx (where x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5),” Phys. Rev. B 62, 11731 (2000).
  11. F. Grandjean, D. Hautot, G. J. Long, and O. Isnard, “A Structural, Magnetic, and Mössbauer Spectral Study of Er2Fe17 and its Hydrides,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 14406 (2001).
  12. C. Piquer, R. Hermann, F. Grandjean, O. Isnard, and G. J. Long, “A Magnetic and Mössbauer Spectral Study of TbFe11Ti and TbFe11TiH,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15, 7395 (2003).
  13. F. Grandjean, G. J. Long, R. Cortes, D. T. Morelli, and G. P. Meisner, “A Cerium LIII-edge X-ray Absorption Study of the CexFe4-yCoySb12 Skutterudites,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 12569 (2000).
  14. G. J. Long, D. Hautot, F. Grandjean, D. T. Morelli, and G. P. Meisner, “A Mössbauer Effect Study of Filled Antimonide Skutterudites,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 7410 (1999).
  15. R. P. Hermann, R. Jin, W. Schweika, F. Grandjean, D. Mandrus, B. C. Sales, and G. J. Long, “Einstein Oscillators in Thallium Filled Antimony Skutterudites,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 135505 (2003); see also <http://focus.aps.org/story/v11/st13>, Phys. Rev. Focus 11, 3 April 2003.
  16. G. J. Long, R. P. Hermann, F. Grandjean, E. E. Alp, W. Sturhahn, C. E. Johnson, D. E. Brown, O. Leupold, and R. Rüffer, “ Strongly Decoupled Europium and Iron Vibrational Modes in Filled Skutterudites,” Phys. Rev. B, in press.
  17. F. Grandjean, G. J. Long, B. B. Hutchinson, L. Ohlhausen, P. Neill, and J. D. Holcomb, “Study of the High-Temperature Spin-State Crossover in the Iron(II) Pyrazolylborate Complex Fe[HB(pz)3]2,” Inorg. Chem. 28, 4406 (1989).
  18. D. L. Reger, C. A. Little, A. L. Rheingold, M. Lam, T. Concolino, F. Grandjean, V. Briois, A. Mohan, and G. J. Long, “A Synthetic, Magnetic, and Spectral Study of Several New {Fe[tris(pyrazolyl)methane]2}2+ Complexes: Observation of an Unusual Spin-State Crossover,” Inorg. Chem. 40, 1508 (2001).
  19. D. L. Reger, J. R. Gardinier, S. Bakbak, W. Gemmill, M. D.  Smith, L. Rebbouh, F. Grandjean, A. M. Shahin, and G. J. Long, “The Formation of Third Generation Poly(pyrazolyl)borate Ligands from Alkyne Coupling Reactions of Fe[(p-IC6H4)B(3-Rpz)3]2 (R = H, Me; pz = pyrazolyl): Pathways Toward Controlling an Iron(II) Electronic Spin-State Crossover,” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 127, 2303 (2005).
  20. D. L. Reger, J. R. Gardinier, M. D.  Smith, A. M. Shahin, G. J. Long, L. Rebbouh, and F. Grandjean, “Polymorphism in Fe[(p-IC6H4)B(3-Mepz)3]2 (pz = Pyrazolyl): Impact of Supramolecular Structure on an Iron(II) Electronic Spin-State Crossover,” Inorg. Chem. 44, 1852 (2005).
  21. J. M. Fiddy, I. Hall, F. Grandjean, G. J. Long, and U. Russo, “Temperature Dependence of the Mössbauer Spectra of Several Iron(III) Trisdithiocarbamate Complexes,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2, 10,091 (1990).
  22. J. M. Fiddy, I. Hall, F. Grandjean, U. Russo, and G. J. Long, “Pressure Dependence of the Mössbauer Spectra of Several Iron(III) Trisdithiocarbamates,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2, 10,109 (1990).


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